In the Linnaean system of binomial nomenclature, the genus is written in italics, with a capital letter, in front of the species name, or on its own. Strong emergence is a type of emergence in which the emergent property is irreducible to its individual constituents. There are increasing concerns, however, that prebiotic thiolated and thioester compounds are thermodynamically and kinetically unfavourable to accumulate in presumed prebiotic conditions i.

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. Cambridge, UK; New York: History of science , although more topics need to be added or listed, and some of my MAK own interests and definitions.

The earliest life on Earth existed more than 3. Generally, the geological timescale and the history of life is described in terms of periods, but in the case of the 65 million year long Cenozoic era, epoches are used instead Paleocene, Eocene, etc. Most of the early studies of pleochroic haloes were made by Joly and Henderson. It is claimed that mixing can often be detected. It gains or loses energy through incoming solar radiation, thermal radiation to space, and gravitational forces exerted by the sun, moon, and planets. About 40 of these ammonite zones are used to subdivide the upper part of the Cretaceous Period in this area. October 2, ] [Links updated: The branching ratio that is often used is 0. Owl Pellet Lab Bone Chart. The following, inevitably incomplete, introductory glossary of terms and concepts links to other topics discussed elsewhere on this site, as well as including general topics of interest such as well-known prehistoric animals. Other areas are much more geologically complex. Suppose these mix together so that at point 0 we have only A, at point 1 we have only B, and in between we have varying concentrations. Certainly this is not produced by an influx from outer space. Salt Lake City, UT: Hallucigenia A Cambrian lobopod proto- arthropod known from the Burgess Shaleand related to the modern Peripatus. Biodiversity In biology, the degree of variety of the Earth's animal, grandma dating app, and microbial lineages within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. This causes the correlation between K-Ar dates and other dates on meteorites to come into question, as well. Theoretical physics and Selected writings, edited by: But they are only distantly related both are archosaurian reptilesbut their common ancestor lived millions of years before the first phytosaur appeared. Sincethere have been still more revisions by other authors, such as Obradovich for the Cretaceous Period, and Gradstein et al. My point was that the usual mixing test can only detect two sources. The age of the Earth is about 4. If a date is too old, one can say that the mineral did not melt with the lava.

The following, inevitably incomplete, introductory glossary of terms and concepts links to other topics discussed elsewhere on this site, as well as including general topics of interest such as well-known prehistoric animals. It still needs to be modified more by removing some more technical terms, and adding more common terms. Inevitably there is some duplication with other glossaries. Some of the references and source material used in compiling this list include Wesley R.

History of sciencealthough more topics need to be added or listed, and some of my MAK own interests and definitions. Where an entry is taken from a single reference, the source is given; sometimes where there it integrates a number of references none is. Due to constraints of time, I have not hyperlinked the entries, nor is this listing complete. In addition, because of limitations of time and energy, or perhaps just sheer laziness and apathy, I have for the most part only included on-line references, which are easier to copy and paste.

Abiotic evolution Non-biological evolutionfor example mineral evolution, stellar evolution, etc. Abiotic factors The non-biological environmental influences that affect organisms ; for example, temperature, rainfall, and humidity. Absolute age The age of an object as established by some precise dating method, such as radiometric dating. Compare with relative age. Dinodata glossary by Fred Bervoets.

Absolute dating A means of estimating the age of rocks with some degree of accuracy using measurements of radioactive isotopes. Acanthodians A primitive group of Silurian to Permian jawed bony fishes, bearing bony spines in front of all but their caudal fins. Acritarch microscopic organic structure from any of a number of organisms; common during the Proterozoic.

Compare and contrast radioactive dating and relative dating radiation, evolutionary radiation the rapid expansion and diversification of a group of organisms as they fill unoccupied ecological nichesevolving into new species. Age of Mammals term found in popular books on evolutionary systematics for the Cenozoic era, beginning with the Paleocene Epoch when following the K—T end Cretaceous mass extinctionmammals underwent a huge evolutionary radiation and thus replaced reptiles as the dominant life on Earth.

The Age of Mammals has in turn been replaced by the Anthropocene or Age of Man, Holocene when humans dominate every conceivable environment and most other life forms apart from weedy species are suffering a mass extinction Yes, I know humans are also mammals, so technically speaking this is still the Age top dating site belgium Mammals, but I tend to think of the Age of Mammals as a period of flourishing biodiversity.

Age of Reptiles term found in popular books on evolutionary systematics for the Permian through to Cretaceous periods but obviously originating with Victorian discoveries of "antediluvian monsters"when reptiles first mammal-like reptilesthen archosaurs and marine reptiles were the dominant life on Earth.

Paleontologist Edwin Colbert wrote a popular intelligent layperson book with the same title. The Age of Reptiles was followed by the Age of Mammals. The Age of Reptiles is also the title of a foot 30 meter mural painted by Rudolph Zallinger depicting the time from the Devonian to the Cretaceous and featuring dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals His The Age of Mammals mural is similar and covers the Cenozoic. The fresco sits in the Yale Peabody Museum in New Haven, Connecticut, and was completed in after three years of work.

The Age of Reptiles was at one time the largest painting in the world, and depicts a span of nearly million years in Earth's history. Painted in the Renaissance fresco secco technique, The Age of Reptiles was an important cultural influence during the s—60s, images of which are often found in earlier books on paleontology, and was also the model for dinosaur toys.

Despite its somewhat outdated view of dinosaurs presenting them as slow, sluggish creaturesThe Age of Reptiles is still notable for its historical and artistic merit and as the largest natural history painting in the world. It has been an inspiration to many visitors including both Robert Bakker and Peter Dodsonwho credit it with influencing them to become paleontologists. Dodson was nearly moved to tears upon first seeing it as a college senior. In my own case MAKa photo of this mural in a book I no longer remember which one when I was still a young child maybe 10 or so exerted a huge influence on me, like a revelation, and for the first time gave me a visual appreciation of deep time in terms of succession and transformation of various forms of plant and animal life.

To this day, this mural, along with a spindle diagram of vertebrate evolution in G. Well's Science of Lifehave been the two central influences that determined the way I think about deep time and the evolution of life on Earth.

I think of Palaeos as in many ways simply an extension, update in keeping with more recent discoveries and commentary on this magnificent work. Age of Reptiles at the Yale Peabody Museum. Agnatha name given to what was previously considered a class of jawless fish, including both Paleozoic ostracoderms and extant lampreys and hagfish. With the cladistic revolutionthe term has been replaced by more phylogenetically accurate terms such as " basal vertebrate ".

Armoured agnathans are called ostracoderms. Albian geologic age of the latest Early Cretaceous Middle Cretaceousspanning the time between and 95 million years ago. Algae generic term for photosyntheticalmost exclusively aquatic, non-vascular plants; Precambrian to recent. Algorithm In mathematics and computer science, an effective method a procedure that reduces the solution of some class of problems to a series of rote steps that give a specific and correct answer expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function.

Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning. Amino acid The molecular building blocks of proteins. The properties of a protein are determined by its particular amino acid sequence. There are 20 amino acids in the proteins of life on Earth. Ammonite A coiled, chambered fossil shell of a cephalopod mollusc of the extinct subclass Ammonoidea.

Amoeba A microscopic, single celled protozoan consisting of a naked mass of protoplasm, compare and contrast radioactive dating and relative dating. Once considered the simplest form of animal life, they are now known to consist of several distinct and unrelated groups of protists.

Amphibian A class of vertebrates that have to return to water to lay their eggs. Morphologically and ecologically diverse during the late Paleozoic era, including aquatic, semi-aquatic, and terrestrial newt, snake, crocodile, and frog analogues. The traditional term "amphibian" is disliked by cladists because it does not constitute a natural clade and so is considered phylogenetically meaningless.

Hence instead terms like basal tetrapod or the names of individual clades and taxa temnospondyls, lepidospondyls, Lissamphibiaetcare used. Nevertheless, "amphibian" can still be used in a generic sense to refer to any non-amniotic tetrapod. Amniote major tetrapod lade that reproduce by means of an external or internal egg in which the embryo or fetus is protected and nourished by several extensive membranes. Include reptilesbirdsand mammals. Middle Carboniferous to recent. Anagenesis the evolutionary transformation of one species over time into another, resulting in the emergence of a new character or attribute which in this case a new species from an older one.

Compare with cladogenesis and budding. Ancestor in this context, an organism, or more correctly a populationlineageor speciesthat through evolution gives rise to one or more descendants that generally belong to a distinct species or lineage, compare and contrast radioactive dating and relative dating. See also common ancestor. A secular form of intelligent design.

Generally does not try to explain where the rest of life or the aliens themselves, for that matter! A more recent iteration can be found in Ridley Scott's movie Prometheus.

Angiosperm plants that possess true flowers with seeds enclosed in an ovary. Palaeobiology and Biodiversity Research Group: Late Cretaceous Climate Change: Ankylosaur herbivourous armoured mostly Cretaceous "bird hipped" dinosaurs with rows of bony plates protecting the sides and back, and armed with either spikes along the sides or a bony club at the end of the trail.

Anthropocene informal geochronological term that serves to mark the evidence and extent of human activities that have had a significant global impact on the Earth's ecosystems. Compare AscentCreationismTeleology. Apomorphy In cladisticsa unique derived character trait found in a particular taxon, which is also possessed by a common ancestor.

Aptian geologic age of the Early Cretaceousspanning the time between and million years ago. Archaea one of the three domains of life in the molecular phylogeny described by Carl Woese originally Archaeobacteria, renamed Archaea by Woese et alprokaryotes that are metabolically and morphologically distinct from Eubacteria ; includes many types of extremophilesremnants from the earlier history of the earth.

Since each presents strong arguments, we defer trying to decide which paradigm is correct. Archean the second of the four eons of the geological timescalecharacterised by a reducing non-oxygen atmosphere and the earliest prokaryote life. It lasted from about 3. Archaeopteryx the earliest and most primitive known birdmost of whose fossil remains were recovered in the 19th century, from the Jurassic Solnhofen limestone in Bavaria.

Perfectly intermediate between reptile luminescence dating lab more correctly, theropod dinosaur and modern bird, its discovery was powerful evidence for Darwinian evolution.

Dominated terrestrial ecosystems for the entirety of the Mesozoic. An important component in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Ascent The premise that evolution directionalmoving from primitive and less perfect to more complex and perfect forms, the whole constituting a sort of hierarchical gradationusually with man at the top.

Criticised by popular science writers like Stephen Jay Gouldbut remains a very influential meme. Some popular thinkers, such as Teilhard de Chardinhave argued for an anthropocentric cosmology, culminating in a future omega point. Assemblage zone An aggregation of fossils in a body of sedimentary rock.

Mostly smaller than a modern human, walked erect, with a human-like body but ape-like skull, showing that brain size evolved late in evolution, rather than early, as the Piltdown forgery led early 20th century scientists to believe. The famous early hominid fossil " Lucy " is an example of an Australopithecine.

Perseus Digital LibraryWiktionary. Astrobiologyalso Exobiology is the study of the origin, evolutiondistribution, and future of life in the universe. This interdisciplinary field uses physics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, molecular biology, ecology, planetary science, geography, and geology to investigate the possibility of life on other worlds and help recognize biosphere s that might be different from the biosphere on Earth.

It includes the search for habitable environments in our Solar System and habitable planets outside our Solar System, the search for evidence of prebiotic chemistry, laboratory and field research into the origins and early evolution of life on Earth, and studies of the potential for life to adapt to challenges on Earth and in outer space. Astrobiology addresses the question of whether life exists beyond Earth, and how humans can detect it if it does.

The term exobiology is similar but more specific — it covers the search for life beyond Earth, and the effects of extraterrestrial environments on living things. I have here used these two terms as synonyms. Autotroph an organism which makes its own food from inorganic materials, using sunlight or chemical reactions for energy. Bacteria microscopic single-celled organism ; the commonest and most ubiquitous form of life on Earth. Woese et al restrict the term "Bacteria" to Eubacteria only, and this practice has since been widely adopted, but in order to avoid confusing with the more general definition we have avoided following this course.

Barremian geologic age of the Early Cretaceousspanning the time between and million years ago. Basal Preferred cladistic substitute for "primitive", as it is felt the latter may carry false connotations of inferiority or a lack of complexity.

Basal node the node or base of the cladogramrepresenting the hypothetical common ancestor of the entire clade. Basal taxon general term in phylogenetic systematics for any terminal taxa that lie at the base of a cladogrami.

Equivalent to primitive or ancestral these terms not being used in cladistics.

For example, they are treating sewage, reducing the amounts of materials they use, and regulating sources of pollution such as emissions from factories and power plants or the runoff tattooed dating uk agricultural activities. Preponderance of K-Ar dating. Jurassic Park science fiction thriller novel by Michael Crichton, which became the basis for a very successful Steven Spielberg movie of the same name, and eventually an entire franchise of books, films and video games centered on a fictional theme park full of cloned and revived dinosaurs. Radiometric dating is commonly used on igneous rocks lavaand on some sedimentary minerals. As an ice crystal forms, it stays pure: Nonetheless, Earth remains the only place in the universe known to harbour life, [29] [30] and fossil evidence from the Earth informs most studies of abiogenesis. Morphogenesis biological process that causes an organism to develop tissues, organs and shape. Since coal is relatively incompressible, Gentry concludes that these particles of uranium and polonium must have entered the deposit before it turned to coal. Engineering geologySoil mechanicsand Geotechnical engineering. October 2, ] [Links updated: Its name derives from Cambria, the Roman name for Wales, where rocks of this age were first studied. They concluded by suggesting some unknown nuclear process which no longer operates to have generated the Ar. The lithosphere also contains the Moho boundary. Archived from the original on 2 December Some resources of economic interests include gemstonesmetals such as gold and copperand many minerals such as asbestosperlitemicaphosphateszeolitesclaypumicequartzand silicaas well as elements such as sulfurchlorineand helium. It is now known that in life the sides of the jaws were covered by cheeks, and looked nothing like a duck's bill. I believe that life was recently created. Archived from the original on 13 April I mentioned the presence of excess argon 40 in a sample as a problem leading to artificially old K-Ar dates. Retrieved 17 June These ancient cells likely contained segmented RNA genomes.